Video streaming service is a platform that provides streaming of various events in real time. Services are media publishers and a way to distribute video content. The peculiarity and advantage of video broadcasting services over television, which also operates in live broadcasting mode, is the provision of the ability to broadcast to any user with a minimum number of required tools, as well as the presence of feedback.
Middleware - service management system
Bridging software (middleware) is a widely used term meaning a layer or complex of technological software for ensuring interaction between various applications, systems, components.
There are several main flavors of middleware:
- distributed object system - DOS or distributed object technologies - DOT
- database access middleware
- transaction monitors
- remote procedure call - RPC
- message-oriented middleware - MOM
Сontent protection system (CAS / DRM)
CAS (Conditional Access System) is a system or complex of software and hardware systems that provides access to channels or radio stations encoded by this system. In other words, it is a management system for obtaining permissions for access to broadcast content.
Conditional access systems began to develop with the advent of pay TV. At that time, the main purpose of CAS was to restrict access to content. This was often done by simply mixing the lines of the transmitted video signal. Hence the name of such systems as the "scrambling system" and the encryption process itself.
Digital Rights Management is a collection of access control and management systems, technical means of copyright protection. It is a system or a series of systems that restrict pirated access to video and audio.
DRM allows you to establish rules for how the viewer interacts with content and to determine the tariff policy, subscriber devices admissible for legal use, allow or prohibit copying and provision of content to other persons.
(See article DRM as video stream protection
Transcoding is the conversion of a digital media file, such as a video file or sound file, from one format to another. Usually this process consists of decoding and re-encoding the file. For example, a Windows Media file can be converted to MP4 so that it can be played on a portable device that supports the format. In addition, you can convert a high definition video file by lowering its resolution. In this case, the transcoded file may use the same codec as the original file, but with a different encoding profile.
Video on demand system (VOD)
Video on Demand is a video on demand system for individual delivery of television programs and films to a subscriber via a digital cable, satellite or terrestrial television network of pay TV operators. The growth in the number of users of OTT-TV and VOD services is determined by the availability of legal, high-quality and popular content for various screens, first of all, films and TV programs.
Types of video on demand:
FVOD (Free Video on Demand) - a type of VOD, which provides almost unlimited access to video (free and without displaying ads);
AVOD (Advertising Video on Demand) - a type of VOD, in which access to video is provided along with advertisements that are shown in the video at regular intervals;
SVOD (Subscription Video on Demand) - a type of VOD, in which access to video is provided by purchasing a periodic subscription;
TVOD (Transactional Video on Demand) - a type of VOD, in which access to video is provided at the expense of paying a certain amount, while there are restrictions either on the number of views or on the time during which the content must be viewed, after which access is terminated;
EST (Electronic Sell-Through) is a type of VOD, in which access is provided against payment of a certain amount, while there are practically no restrictions (only if they are not introduced by the video copyright holders).
(read more about AVOD)
Content delivery and distribution network (CDN)
CDN (Content Delivery Network) is a group of servers set up in different locations to deliver web content across a wide geographic region.
They are also called "distribution networks" and the idea is to offer multiple points of presence outside of the original server. This allows websites to better manage traffic by processing user requests faster, which overall provides a more enjoyable experience.
You use a CDN every time you visit a high-traffic ecommerce site or meet friends on social media pages. These data centers communicate with each other, bringing content closer to the people who need it, regardless of the geographic location of individual users or the main server of a website.
By spreading delivery systems over a large area, websites can reduce bandwidth consumption and page load times, saving precious seconds of the time it takes to process requests from multiple users.
Quality of Service (QOS) Monitoring
QoS (Quality of Service) is a technology for specifying service priorities for different types of traffic. That is, QoS is a technology that can guarantee full transmission of a certain type of traffic within a given technological framework.
The main task of QoS is to ensure the guaranteed transmission of certain data packets without the user noticing. QoS can be used anywhere: home, office, library, airport, etc. Using QoS technology, you can guarantee that users will not have problems downloading files, making video calls, talking over IP telephony, viewing any online documents in a local or global network.
Data transfer rate (Bitrate). Specifies the maximum minimum bandwidth for data transmission. It is measured in bits per second and depends on the bandwidth.
Delay in the process of sending / receiving data packet (Delay). The parameter is specified in milliseconds.
The number of lost packets (Packet loss). Indicates the number of packets that were lost in the process of sending / receiving them.
The communication channel can be described as a tube, and the bandwidth as its length and diameter. And if this pipe (communication channel) has a narrowed "neck", then you will have to use the FIFO method (First In / First Out).
All packets that are not in the queue for the FIFO will be ignored by the router and their loss as a result. Therefore, it is more logical to use a more "advanced" type of this queue, where the priorities will depend on the specific type of service.
QoS working models
Best Effort Service (non-guaranteed package delivery). Implies the usual increase in channel width. The process does not use any separate traffic classes, and no channels are allocated for this traffic.
IntServ - Integrated Service. Provides better network service by guaranteeing a certain bandwidth. Uses RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) to ensure compliance with requirements for all nodes in the infrastructure.
DiffServ - Differentiated Service. It is QoS organized by allocating network resources and defining constrained classes at the edge of the network, which are combined to provide the required services.
Subscriber equipment (STB)
A set-top box (STB), also colloquially known as a cable box, is an information appliance device that generally contains a TV-tuner input and displays output to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the source signal into content in a form that can then be displayed on the television screen or other display device. They are used in cable television, satellite television, and over-the-air television systems as well as other uses. A computer that connects to your television allows you to use a telephone line or cable connection for you to browse the Internet and exchange electronic mail on your television.
It is still the most widely used end user device controlled with the remote controler. It decodes received video signals in a format proper for presentation on the TV. STB provides different interfaces for connecting TV such as HDMI, SCART or composite. If required, it also decrypts video signals using a dedicated DRM client that needs to be integrated on the STB.
Main mobile development platforms
Mobile development platforms differ by the mobile operating system (OS) they cater to.
Android — Android mobile development platforms cater specifically to this highly popular mobile OS, allowing developers to build mobile applications for a huge variety of Android-based devices.
iOS — Unlike Android, which can be run on numerous hardware brands, iOS is proprietary software and only runs on Apple’s devices (iPhone, iPad, etc.). iOS mobile development platforms help companies cater to iOS users and verify that their apps will run well for users.
Other — also U.S. markets share a mixed bag of other mobile OS with systems such as Blackberry and Microsoft. These mobile OS are typically designed for proprietary mobile hardware. The mobile development platforms built to handle these other OS keep in mind the strict requirements to run on these proprietary operating systems and hardware.
Hybrid — A class of mobile development platforms that might see growth in the future, hybrid platforms allow developers to build applications for multiple OS types on a single platform. Hybrid mobile development platforms help companies reach several audiences without having to build two or more separate but similar applications. Instead, they can build for multiple operating systems under the same platform, usually with HTML5, without loss of quality or scope.
The development of OTT is a worldwide trend. The importance of OTT technologies in the broadcasting industry is still not understood by everyone. OTT allows new entrants to the market to quickly join the rapidly growing IPTV segment. OTT provides traditional broadcasters with the opportunity to expand their audience and reclaim their cable subscribers.